MA Xiaorong,ZHA Xiaochun*.Spatial Structure Evolvement and Impact Factors of Rural Settlementsin the Qinba Mountain Area: A Case Study of Ningqiang County in Shaanxi Province, China[J].Mountain Research,2020,(5):726-739.[doi:10.16089/j.cnki.1008-2786.000550]





Spatial Structure Evolvement and Impact Factors of Rural Settlementsin the Qinba Mountain Area: A Case Study of Ningqiang County in Shaanxi Province, China
陕西师范大学 地理科学与旅游学院,西安710062
MA Xiaorong ZHA Xiaochun*
School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, China
秦巴山区 乡村聚落 空间演变 影响因子 地理加权回归模型 宁强县
Qinba mountain area rural settlement spatial evolution influencing factors Geographical Weighted Regression model Ningqiang county
聚落演变是研究人地关系的重要组成部分,把握聚落演变的规律性对于优化聚落空间结构,促进人地协调发展具有重要意义。本研究以秦巴山区宁强县为研究对象,基于Google Earth高分辨率影像提取了2010年和2019年宁强县乡村聚落斑块数据,综合运用景观格局指数和GIS空间分析等方法,对宁强县乡村聚落空间格局的演变特征进行了动态研究,并引入地理加权回归模型进一步探寻了宁强县乡村聚落空间格局及演变的影响因子。研究结果表明:(1)从乡村聚落规模来看,与2010年相比,2019年宁强县乡村聚落数量减少而规模增加,小型聚落逐渐向大、中型聚落发展; 聚落规模空间集聚性显著,大规模聚落分布在河谷平坝并向外扩展,小规模聚落散布在外围的山地丘陵区,分布重心由西部向东部和南部转移;(2)从空间分布来看,乡村聚落高密度区向镇区缩减,原本以街道办和各镇为中心的多核带状分布逐渐破碎化。聚落空间分布的低地缓坡指向性和交通、河流指向性随时间发展进一步加强;(3)复杂的地形条件、河流、地质环境和耕地资源等自然环境因素塑造了宁强县乡村聚落大分散、小集聚的空间基本格局,并在聚落演变中继续发挥着重要作用; 政策制度因素以及交通条件、人口规模等社会人文因素是推动宁强县乡村聚落迅速演化的重要动力。本研究可为山区乡村聚落的空间布局优化和移民搬迁选址提供理论依据。
Settlement evolution is an integral part of the man-land relationship. It is of great significance to grasp the regularity of settlement evolution in order to optimize the spatial structure of settlements and promote man-land coordination. Taking Ningqiang County in the Qinba Mountain Area as the subject of study, and basing the study on the settlement patches data between the years 2010 and 2019 which was extracted from Google Earth's high-resolution images, the spatial pattern evolution of rural settlements in Ningqiang County was analyzed quantitatively through the comprehensive application of the landscape pattern index as well as GIS spatial analysis technology. Subsequently, the influencing factors of spatial pattern and evolution of settlements were explored by introducing the Geographical Weighted Regression(GWR). The results indicated that:(1)From the perspective of the evolution of settlement scale in the Ningqiang county, compared with that of the year 2010, the number of settlements decreased but the scale increased in 2019, while the small settlements gradually developed into large and medium-sized ones. The spatial correlation of settlement scale was significant. Large-scale settlements were mainly distributed along the river valleys and flat dams and expanded outward. The small-scale settlements were distributed in the bordering mountainous and hilly areas. However, the distribution center of gravity shifted from the west to the east and south.(2)From the perspective of spatial distribution, the high-density areas of the settlement were reduced to a township, and the multi-core ribbon distribution, which was initially centered on street offices and townships, was gradually broken up. The positioning of low altitude, gentle slope directivity, near-road and near-river trends of settlement spatial distribution was further strengthened.(3)The complex topographic conditions, rivers, geological environment and cultivated land resources shaped the spatial basic pattern of large dispersion and small cluster of Ningqiang settlements, and played a significant role in the evolution of these settlements. Policy factors, traffic, population scale and other social and human factors were also important driving forces to promote the rapid evolution of settlements. This study is capable of providing a theoretical basis for spatial planning and relocation of rural settlements in mountainous areas.


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收稿日期(Received date):2020-06-09; 改回日期(Accepted data):2020-07-24
基金项目(Foundation item):国家科技基础资源调查专项项目(2017FY100905)。[National Science and Technology Basic Resources Survey project(2017FY100905)]
作者简介(Biography):马晓蓉(1995-),女,山西太原人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向:资源开发与环境演变。[MA Xiaorong(1995-), female, born in Taiyuan, Shanxi province, M.Sc. candidate, research on resource development and environmental evolution] E-mail:shirley@snnu.edu.cn
*通讯作者(Corresponding author):查小春(1972-),男,陕西汉中人,博士,教授,主要研究方向:资源开发与环境演变。 [ZHA Xiaochun(1972-), male, Ph.D., professor, research on resource development and environmental evolution] E-mail:Zhaxch@snnu.edu.cn
更新日期/Last Update: 2020-09-30