ZHANG Yongfenga,b,c,et al.Spatial Evolution of Rural Settlements in Fujian Province of China from a Perspective of Folk Group Division[J].Mountain Research,2023,(5):701-715.[doi:10.16089/j.cnki.1008-2786.000781]





Spatial Evolution of Rural Settlements in Fujian Province of China from a Perspective of Folk Group Division
(福建师范大学 a. 地理研究所; b. 湿润亚热带生态地理过程教育部重点实验室; c. 地理科学学院,福州 350007)
ZHANG Yongfengabc DAI Wenyuanabc* HUANG Wanliabc WANG Shaofeiabc
(a. Institute of Geography; b. Key Laboratory of Moist Subtropical Ecogeographical Processes,Ministry of Education; c. School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China)
民系 乡村聚落 景观格局指数 时空格局 演化机制 福建省
folk group rural settlement landscape pattern index spatial and temporal pattern evolutionary mechanism Fujian China
福建省不同民系地域乡村聚落具有鲜明的地方特色和丰富的文化内涵,但快速城镇化进程导致不同民系乡村聚落及地方文化特色衰退甚至消亡。相关研究较少从人文地理视角分析乡村聚落演化,不能全面揭示多元地域文化下乡村聚落空间的演化特征和规律。本文采用GIS空间分析、景观格局指数等方法,分析1990—2020年福建不同民系乡村聚落规模、形态和空间演变特征,揭示乡村聚落空间格局形成的影响因素。结果表明:(1)1990—2020 年,福建乡村聚落用地规模总体呈增加趋势,特别是2010—2020年乡村聚落规模扩张最为迅速,但聚落斑块数量呈现下降趋势。(2)30 a间不同民系乡村聚落形态趋于复杂化,其中闽南民系区乡村聚落的形状最为复杂,闽东民系区乡村聚落形态复杂度有所降低; 聚落破碎度则整体表现为内陆民系区大于沿海民系区。(3)地形、坡度等自然因素为福建省不同民系乡村聚落空间格局的形成奠定了基础,但30 a间不同民系乡村聚落受河流、交通、距县城中心距离等区位因素影响日益明显,距道路不同缓冲距离的乡村聚落具有W型分布特征; 距河流不同缓冲距离的乡村聚落具有U型分布特征。(4)30 a间不同民系乡村聚落用地空间格局处于差异发展期,乡村聚落密度呈V型空间结构特征; 沿海的闽东民系区东部、莆仙民系区、闽南民系区东部形成乡村聚落高密度带状集聚区,客家民系区次之,闽中、闽北民系区处于低密度区。研究结果可为不同民系传承与保护乡村聚落地方文化及特色提供科学依据。
Folk groups with distinctive local characteristics and rich cultural connotation feature in rural settlements in Fujian province, China; however, rapid urbanization in rural areas had led to the decline and even disappearance of local culture and characteristics for the rural settlements for past thirty years. There were little research on the evolution of rural settlements from a humanistic geographical perspective, which cannot entirely interpreted the evolution and laws of rural settlement space in the context of multiple geographical cultures.
In this study, the land-use level and spatial evolution of rural settlements zoned by folk group divisions in the period of 1990 to 2020 in Fujian province, China were analyzed by GIS spatial analysis, landscape pattern index, and other methods, and then it revealed the influencing factors affecting the formation of rural settlement spatial pattern.
It found the following results.(1)From 1990 to 2020, the land areas of rural settlements in Fujian province increased overall; especially from 2010 to 2020, the rate of expansion in land use of rural settlements was the fastest, whereas the number of settlement patches showed a downward trend.(2)For the past 30 years, there was a general tendency toward more complicated settlements patterns along with different folk groups, among which rural settlements in Minnan(Southern Fujian)folk group had the most complex layouts, whereas in Mindong(Eastern Fujian)folk group it decreased to some extent. The landscape complexity level of inland folk group was higher than that of coastal folk group.(3)Natural factors such as topography, slope etc. laid a solid foundation for rural settlement spatial formations in different folk group regions; nevertheless, in the past 30 years, rural settlement spatial formations appeared to be more subject to location factors such as rivers, transportation, and distance from downtown. Rural settlements with different buffer distances from roads had a W-shaped pattern, while those with different buffer distances from rivers had a U-shaped distribution characteristics.(4)The spatial patterns of rural settlement lands were in a phase of differential development and the spatial structure of rural settlement density described a V-shaped feature. Rural settlements in the coastal areas of eastern Mindong folk group, Puxian(Putian city)folk group, and eastern Minnan folk group formed a cluster of the most high-density strip-shape array, then followed by Hakka folk group. The Minzhong(central Fujian)and Minbei(northern Fujian)folk groups were in low-density distribution.
This research can provide a scientific basis for the inheritance and protection of local culture and characteristics of rural settlements with different folk groups.


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收稿日期(Received date): 2022-12-25; 改回日期(Accepted date): 2023-10-18
基金项目(Foundation item): 国家自然科学基金(41971261); 福建省科技厅公益类项目(2021R1002003); 福建省自然科学基金(2018J01741)。[National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971261); Public Welfare Project of Fujian Science and Technology Department(2021R1002003); Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province(2018J01741)]
作者简介(Biography): 张永峰(1998-),男,宁夏固原人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向:城市与区域规划。[ZHANG Yongfeng(1998-), male, born in Guyuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, M.Sc. candidate, research on urban and regional planning] E-mail: 1825879871@qq.com
*通讯作者(Corresponding author): 戴文远(1972-),男,副教授,主要研究方向:土地利用与乡村发展。[DAI Wenyuan(1972-), male, associate professor, research on land use and rural development] E-mail: dwygeo@fjnu.edu.cn
更新日期/Last Update: 2023-09-30